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Cinematography and camera movements.

Cinematography

Extreme close up (XCU); Showing subject’s face, particularly the eyes, effective for showing emotions of character. Can be used to detail an object, such as a clock.

Close up (CU); Whole head, shoulders, filling the screen. Can show character reactions and emotion, which helps the audience understand what they are thinking.

Medium Close up (MCU); Filmed character, from chest up, setting is shown further, body language can be displayed much more easily, along with posture and hand gestures.

Medium shot (MS); Displays even more, the waist or to the knees are seen on screen.

Long shot (LS); A shot that shows all of the subject and a lot of the setting. Used for a clearer perspective and context for the scene.

Vista shot (VS); Shows a wide or panoramic shot of where it’s set.

Additional shots;

POV (point of view),

Bird’s eye view (top down perspective),

Shaky cam (primarily used in found footage horrors).

Angle

High angle shot; Camera positioned at high angle, makes characters appear small and vulnerable.

Low angle shot; Camera positioned at low angle, makes characters appear empowered.

Canted angle; At a slant, makes scene seem chaotic, used sparingly, as it can be quite disorientating.

Camera movements

Pan; Camera moves left/right (Dolly/tracking shots)

Tilt; Camera moves up/down

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